Livro Historia Concisa Da Literatura Brasileira Alfredo imediatamente anterior àquele em que d. afonso henriques começou a história concisa da literatura. Livro Historia Concisa Da Literatura Brasileira Alfredo almeida, maria regina celestino de. os índios na história - elisa frühauf garcia revista brasileira. TUFANO, Douglas. Estudos de Literatura Brasileira. p. 1 / Embed or link this publication. Popular Pages. p. 1. douglas tufano licenciado em letras e.

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Cautiously, the priest Anchieta said: Some of our brothers give testimony of this, having seen those killed by it.

That's why Indians have the custom of leaving bird feathers, fans, arrows and other similar things, as a kind of offering, on the top of the highest hills when threading certain trails that lead, through rough paths, to the heart of those lands. This is one of the few verified cases of propitiatory offerings among Brazilian indigenous peoples. The creation of similar myths is confirmed among almost all ancient cultures.

Curupira is described as a very nimble little Indian, with his feet turned backwards, fire-red hair or a shaved head, a guardian of trees and game animals, master of all animals that inhabit the forest.

Before big storms, it strides along the woods drumming the large tree trunks to assure resilience.

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It embodies forest sounds and the uncertainties of venturing into the wilderness. When it wants to, it can be generous. But it generally turns against hunters, in defense of animals. Its high pitched whistling makes hunters panic and lose their way in the woods. It's well known that it's not a benevolent spirit but is misleading and murderous.

Its backwards feet fool pursuers, leaving false tracks in the ground. It can, sometimes, help some hunters in exchange for food, giving them weapons and telling them secrets that, if revealed, lead to deadly punishment.

After various transformations, the legend recounts how the mother of the waters is a beautiful woman with long blond hair and green eyes, who lives inside a palace beneath the waters, to where she attracts young men whom she wishes to marry.

So the dictators in Burma, the military and its proxy partydo not run their country themselves alone. Classicos literatura brasileira online dating So the United States should identify cronies like FritzThyssen in Burma and imposed financial and banking sanctions onthem. Those two storage lockers were emptied and closed.

But the best news is we are in the process now of finding a proper home whether a University, museum or public collection for Paul Williams archive. Can you donate something today to Elizabethsn me make my goal. There are levels of donation and rewards. Smith Oxford University Press. Free of Everything, Dr. Jornal Brasileiro de Transplantes.

In this article, I address the flip side of the somewhat glamorous reception of Latin American books in the United States. My ultimate goal is to try to understand how commercial vindication, editorial procedures, explicit and implicit literary criteria, and cultural expectations shape the way Brazilian fiction was scrutinized and selected, or rejected, for translation.

I also discuss the influence of cultural diplomacy and Cold War politics on the dynamics of the book trade between Brazil and the United States. I argue that the whole process of editorial approval or rejection of literary work from a peripheral country like Brazil illuminates telling aspects of inter-American cultural negotiation and confirms well-known power imbalances in the global republic of letters.

Alfred Knopf, Inc. During her time in these countries, Blanche met secret service personnel, was granted official privileges, and sent updates on the local political situation to the American government Blanche Knopf, The tour was part of a set of diplomatic initiatives by the Department of State to consolidate an inter-American book market through direct and indirect patronage.

In , Lewis Hanke, from the Library of Congress, embarked on a similar trip and spent more than three months visiting nine Latin American countries to set up a project to subsidize the translation of American books into Spanish and Portuguese. On that occasion, Hanke charted the main publishing houses and cultural and scientific institutions in each country and, to consolidate the gains of his trip, suggested that Brazilian publishers be invited to visit the United States Hanke, At that point, the need for translating Latin American titles into English was mentioned only marginally and the imbalances in cultural exchanges just occasionally attracted some criticism.

Sooner or later, even those in charge of the translation programs recognized this as a drawback: Alfred and Blanche Knopf tackled the challenge of presenting Latin American titles to American audiences. Irene Rostagno suggests that their major motivation was to search for new foreign writers for their list during wartime, when traveling to Europe was impracticable Rostagno, , p.

At any rate, since the s Alfred Knopf, Inc. In her essay, Blanche shared several interesting considerations on what she had learned about the editorial and literary landscape in South America and endorsed the usual rhetoric of American cultural diplomacy of those days: It is worth noting that both Amado and Ramos were left-wing writers who joined the Communist Party in Brazil, and whose translated novels, Violent Land and Anguish , respectively, adopted a critical perspective on social class divisions.

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Therefore, at least in the mids, when the fight against Nazi-fascism brought together leftists and conservatives, American cultural diplomacy was quite tolerant in terms of the political stances of translated authors. It is also remarkable that, since the beginning, the Knopf catalog of translated Latin American titles favored, with few exceptions, contemporary, living writers. With the end of World War II, official interest in Latin America on the part of the United States diminished, and several cultural exchanges and translation programs were discontinued Sadlier, , p.

European reconstruction was a priority, which explains why between and Latin America received less us economic support than Belgium and Luxembourg Munhoz, , p.

The us goal was to flood Latin America with American books, magazines, comics, movies, and newsreels, and to gain a presence in conventions, exhibitions, and universities. Additionally, the overall commercial performance in the US market of the translations of books from the south of the Rio Grande had been deceiving.

In the introduction of his Marvelous Journey: Putnam was evidently justifying his own work as a forerunner Brazilianist who, since the beginning of the s, had been propagating Brazilian fiction in American journals, such as The Inter-American Quarterly and Science and Society Sadlier, , p.

Nevertheless, he rightly noted that the development of a promising market for Latin American literature would require a broader, well-informed audience in America. At that time, though, the cultural and educational apparatus in place in the United States was not satisfactorily designed to generate a critical mass for debating and consuming Latin American fiction.

Putnam must have realized the hard way that inter-American book exchanges were a more difficult business: The scenario changed significantly toward the end of that decade and during the next one, when the Cuban Revolution and its subsequent radicalization brought Latin America to the center stage in Cold War politics and reactivated a more aggressive us economic and cultural intervention in the continent Cohn, , p.

The urgency to counterbalance intellectual influence on the part of Cuban cultural diplomacy prompted American public and private organizations to invest in programs and centers dedicated to Latin America studies at us universities, engage with Brazilian and Spanish American writers and promote their work in the American literary market.


Not coincidentally, during the s Alfred Knopf resumed his role as a pivotal figure in Brazil-us literary relations. Although his firm then competed with university presses and other commercial publishing houses for the resources of translation programs aimed at Latin America, Knopf stands out for his close and steady relationship with Brazil, which he maintained until he died, in Between and , Knopf traveled four times to Brazil, where he established long-lasting friendships and continuously expanded his network with writers, publishers, booksellers, artists, academics, politicians, bankers, businesspeople, and North American and foreign diplomatic personnel.

However, Alfred Knopf was no rubber stamp for US policies and programs. In his correspondence, Knopf confessed how dubious he was about the Alliance for the Progress and he criticized the translation program.

As many have pointed out, participation in us-led programs and general acceptance of American cultural diplomacy did not necessarily mean unreserved adherence, consensus or subjugation.

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The complexity of governmental structure and bureaucratic management, the coexistence of various agendas, and the vast number of social actors involved complicated the dynamics of inter-American intellectual and artistic exchanges Barnhisel, , p.

Cold War ideology, their books were nevertheless translated and their works were studied in American universities, under direct or indirect patronage of governmental agencies Cohn, , p. Their first letters in the s were quite objective and focused mainly on business, but a close friendship evolved and lasted for decades, most likely due to a combination of factors: Affection obviously does not ensure deep understanding or unconditional appraisal of Brazilian culture, habitus , or literature.

Cultural exchanges and intercultural engagement are much more complex and challenging than what well-intentioned discourses and top-down programs may suggest. Curiosity, openness, and acceptance-when they do exist-usually go hand in hand with distaste, uneasiness, and annoyance. Amado says: But in his travel logs, Knopf reveals a different disposition. He often complains that Brazilians, much to his frustration and perplexity, lacked any sense of time.

About the Bumba Meu Boi festival in Pernambuco, he writes: In his diaries and letters, there are quite a few remarks revealing cultural anxieties: Moreover, Knopf continually expresses annoyance with the big loud parties to which he was invited and deep impatience with the verbose rhetoric, a core linguistic and behavioral protocol in Brazilian culture and, as for that, a poetic resource of certain Brazilian writers: It is, of course, difficult to measure how such thoughts and feelings toward an overseas culture can influence the reading habits of an individual and the way he or she perceives foreign literary works.

Also, publishing decisions are usually a team effort, not a one-person verdict, and they take into consideration an array of aspects beyond the intrinsic textual attributes of a book. Thus, his observations on Brazil and Brazilians imply a cultural bias that, if shared by a larger group-e. One can argue that the dismissal of foreign literature in North America does not target only Spanish American or Brazilian books.

In current times, the situation remains pretty much the same: Not surprisingly, it is still harder to seduce readers to consume works from a country and a culture they are thoroughly ignorant of. As Elizabeth Lowe and Earl E. Unfamiliarity can easily open the way for stereotypes and often results in disdain.

In , a public opinion survey found that 34 percent of Americans considered Latin Americans ignorant, 41 percent said they were lazy, and only 15 percent thought they were intelligent Skidmore et al. Lowe and Fitz, If there were indeed an allergy to Brazilian and Spanish American literature, not even Knopf himself was immune to it. In an ironic retort to translator James L. Years later, Knopf would be even more sarcastic about the positive image Latin Americans have of their writers: Readers and editors who worked for Alfred Knopf, Inc.

Jorge Amado expressed the same opinion, saying that from a certain point on, people at Alfred Knopf, Inc. As a matter of fact, Alfred Knopf detected the negative attitude some readers and translators had toward Brazilian books. One may rightly ask why, then, Knopf relied on such contributors. The truth is that the publisher did not have too many choices. That few Americans and us residents speak Portuguese to this day both explains and aggravates the peripheral position of Brazilian literature in the us.

In some cases, the bad quality of translations became evident before publication, and remedial actions had to be taken. Knopf observes that James L. Indeed, many scholars understand that the poor quality of translations is responsible for the cool reception of many Brazilian authors in the United States Lowe and Fitz, , pp. The role of professional readers and translators was even more crucial since neither Knopf nor any of his assistants could read in Portuguese.

At best, editors at Alfred Knopf, Inc.

But some of those commissioned readers also based their literary judgment on sample translations, whose potential defects could generate questionable evaluations of a book and risks its rejection.

It is true, though, that typically more than one reader would report on a potential new release. Lefevere, , p. Therefore, what the reports of these editors and readers reveal varies greatly depending not only on personal preferences, scholarship, and familiarity with Brazil, but also on individual motivations.

Sometimes, the reviewer is a prospective translator or a formal or informal broker, and his or her evaluation may tend to highlight the merits of a book no matter what. Charity Cole, a frequent reader for Knopf, emphasized the importance of the work as a source of information on Brazil.

Nevertheless, both Shelby and Cole recognized that the rich vocabulary and the volume of historical, cultural and sociological references could be an obstacle for non-Brazilian readers. Regardless of this, they were clearly in favor of publishing it in the United States: Although universality is clearly not a valid cultural concept, it has cultural and literary implications, since it creates asymmetric expectations according to place and origin.

Additionally, in the context of the Cold War, literary and artistic nationalism were at odds with the idea of universality and cosmopolitanism promoted by the United States to consolidate American hegemony and combat leftist resistance to American cultural invasion in Latin American countries Franco, , pp. On the other hand, if the peripheral writer aspires to universality, why would readers in the center dare read his or her books when they have direct access to Melville, Woolf, Faulkner, and Morrison?

Of course, the negotiation between national roots and international expectations can be shaped in any number of ways, including the time-worn adage about reaching the universal through the particular. At any rate, documents at the Alfred Knopf, Inc. That many Latin American books released in the US which have never been reprinted or retranslated in English may suggest a commercial failure. The case of Vampiro sums the whole situation: Also, in some cases, the impact of translated Latin American writers must have been limited, since many of them had to wait years before having a second book published in the United States, while others have never accomplished such a feat e.

Finally, because important titles and writers from Latin America have been largely ignored or rejected by North American editors, those in the US who do not read in Spanish or Portuguese have extremely restricted access to and consequently an impaired understanding of Latin American literature.

Commercial misfortune may explain the number of rejected Brazilian titles by Alfred Knopf, Inc. More importantly, all the losses in the translation and publishing processes of Brazilian literature in the United States may account for a less optimistic narrative of cultural exchanges in times of a globalized market.

Amado, Jorge. Conversation avec Alice Raillard. Gallimard, Knopf, Alfred A. Portrait of a Publisher, , vol. New York: The Typophiles, , p. Armstrong, Piers.

Third World Literature Fortunes: Brazilian Culture and Its International Reception. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press; Londres: Associated University Presses, Barnhisel, Greg. Cold War Modernists: Art, Literature, and American Cultural Diplomacy. Columbia University Press, Bishop, Elizabeth. Letter to A. Knopf, 15 December Alfred A. Knopf, 12 April Caute, David.

The Dancer Defects: Oxford University Press, Claridge, Laura. The Lady with the Borzoi: Blanche Knopf, Literary Tastemaker Extraordinaire.

Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Cohn, Deborah. Nationalism during the Cold War. Nashville, Tenn: Vanderbilt University Press, Cole, Charity.

Letter to Alfred Knopf, 23 October Congrat-Butlar, Stefan. Letter to the editor of Publishers Weekly, 10 February Knopf, 26 June AKR, Series V, That few Americans and us residents speak Portuguese to this day both explains and aggravates the peripheral position of Brazilian literature in the us. Indeed, many scholars understand that the poor quality of translations is responsible for the cool reception of many Brazilian authors in the United States Lowe and Fitz, , pp.

Alfred Knopf and the Screening of Brazilian Literature. Armstrong, Piers. Cold War ideology, their books were nevertheless translated and their works were studied in American universities, under direct or indirect patronage of governmental agencies Cohn, , p.

Book Translations as a Cultural System-World.

Letter to Elizabeth Bishop, 16 August